open access

Abstract

Fruit crop species are from the most widely cultivated crops in Morocco. However, the sustainability of this lucrative business is threatened by infestations of invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) that may inflict heavy economic losses to the country if their invasion occurs. At this time, Medfly is the main fruit fly which causes a high loss and is a phytosanitary concern to fruit species. The distribution and abundance of the major frugivorous tephritids are influenced by host presence, climatic factors, and their potential of invasion. Two types of economic impact of fruit flies are distinguished, direct losses in the yield and indirect losses due to the loss of markets caused by quarantine restrictions imposed by importing countries to prevent the entry of exotic flies in their territory. The most important invasive tephritid fruit flies present in Africa and that may constitute a risk of invasion into Morocco are Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera cucurbitae. Also, the indigenous species within genera Ceratitis ((Ceratitis quinaria, C. anonae, C. catoirii, C. cosyra, C. silvestrii, C. ditissima, C. fasciventris, C. rosa, C. quilicii) and Dacus (Dacus latifrons, D.vertebratus, D.bivittatus, D.punctatifrons,  Dacus ciliates) may present a risk of introduction to Morocco. These fruit fly species are characterized by having a wide range of host plants and a wide distribution throughout Africa. The risk of spread is enhanced by the lack of control and the weakness of the identification process of the present and newly introduced species. This review presents the status and the distribution of major fruit fly species present in Africa, gives an overview of their host plants, new invasions and means of detection and phytosanitary measures to implement in Morocco to avoid any invasion originated from other African countries.

Keywords: Africa, Fruit fly, Distribution, host plant, Invasion, biosecurity, and Morocco.